taa ndaa compliant

What is the Trade Agreements Act (TAA)?

The Trade Agreements Act (TAA), enacted in July of 1979, is an Act of Congress that governs trade agreements negotiated between the United States and other countries under the Trade Act of 1974. The TAA was designed to maintain robust international trading systems while creating new trade opportunities for the United States of America. A product is generally TAA compliant if it is made in the United States of America or one of the following “Designated Countries”.

  • Nations in a free trade agreement with the United States of America, including Canada, Mexico, Singapore, and Australia.
  • Nations participating in the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement (WTO GPA), such as Japan and several European countries.
  • Other developing and Caribbean Basin nations, such as Afghanistan, Ethiopia, Costa Rica, Haiti, and others.

All NVT Phybridge IP products are made in Canada and are TAA compliant. Our products have been used by Federal, State, and Local U.S. government agencies to enable IP and IoT devices.

What is the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA)?

The National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) is a series of United States federal laws specifying the annual budget and expenditures of the U.S. Department of Defense. Within the National Defense Authorization Act, S889 (a)(1)(A) and (B) states that the United States Government shall not use technology – in the entire supply chain – from a banned technology or surveillance company.

NVT Phybridge products, manufacturers, and suppliers do not use banned technology and do not source from/are not a banned company. Therefore, all NVT Phybridge IP products are eligible for use under the U.S. National Defense Authorization Act.

If you have an upcoming IP/IoT modernization project, we would love to help! Click below to book a one-on-one meeting with one of our Digital Transformation Consultants.

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In an ever-increasingly connected world, information security grows more critical by the minute.

2-minute read time

Whether it is a cupcake shop guarding grandmas’ perfect recipe, or a multinational corporation protecting consumer information, information security is vital. As innovation drives convenience and ease of use, it is crucial to consider this impact on information security.

Every endpoint and network element can be a risk to this data. Organizations have the responsibility to ensure that customer and internal data are safe. Information is private, and we must make sure our data highways are as secure as possible.

Doing this requires an understanding of the ways that data can be compromised and subsequently protected. Wireless communications have become an area of growing concern. There are several wireless networking methods, including Wi-Fi, point-to-point relays, LTE5G, and technologies like Bluetooth and Zigbee.

Unlike wired solutions that transmit electrical pulses, wireless technologies create electromagnetic radiation that is broadcast through the air, like radio. Wired communications have been at the forefront of secured systems, given their physical attributes.

Information security can be broken down into Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability of data. When dealing with each of these characteristics, wired communications excel in the following areas.

Data Confidentiality

Confidentiality is ensuring that collected data remains in your hands. No unauthorized person or entity should be able to gain access to your data. Physical obfuscation of signaling with proprietary technology can ensure that data remains secure, whether encrypted or otherwise. Wireless and more common communication methods are more likely to be intercepted or “listened to” than data traveling on wired communications.

Data Integrity

Integrity is ensuring that data does not become modified or corrupted from the original. Wireless communications that external elements or rogue entities can easily access are at severe risk of integrity loss.

Transmitted signals can be altered by factors like air pressure/density, external electromagnetic sources, and physical objects in the environment, such as buildings and vehicles. Additionally, man-in-the-middle attacks can compromise data security using wireless Stingrays or other spoofed devices.

Data Availability

Availability is ensuring that data is present when it is needed. Uptime statistics for wired communications have historically dominated the wireless space. The added vulnerability of signaling over the air struggles to match the electrical pulses’ security benefits over a dedicated medium like a data wire.

Improve Security with NVT Phybridge PoE (Power Over Ethernet) Solutions

Information security is an ever-present challenge. While analyzing network options, consider the risk and impact of various elements and address it before it is too late. While some technologies may offer conveniences at the time of install, other innovations may exist to help keep your data safe while facilitating your IP/IoT migrations.

Do you need to build a secure network for your IP and IoT devices? Click here to learn more about industry-leading NVT Phybridge networking innovations, including managed/unmanaged switches and single-port extender solutions. Exceptional signaling and long-range power delivery provide security benefits that wireless networking solutions can not achieve.

If you have an upcoming IP/IoT modernization project, we would love to help! Click below to book a one-on-one meeting with one of our Digital Transformation Consultants.

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Author – Nicolas Puello

Network Design and Support Specialist, NVT Phybridge

Nicolas Puello assists our customers and partners with pre-and post-sales support inquiries, including network configurationinstallation, and troubleshooting. With a background in Systems Analysis and Information Systems Security, Nicolas ensures our customers have the best possible products installed in the best possible layout for their needs. In his spare time, Nicolas leads an online community of over 3,500 individuals with an interest in simulation racing, computer hardware, software, and emerging technologies.

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Digital Transformation and the Internet of Things Improving Services Across Several Industries

We live in an age where smartphones and laptops are no longer a luxury; they are a requirement. For nearly every problem we have, there is a digital solution. Therefore, organizations of all sizes are using technology to revolutionize industry practices. Here are a few sectors that have undergone a digital transformation thanks to technological innovations.

Digital Transformation in Education

The global COVID-19 pandemic has forced schools to forego in-person learning, with students and teachers meeting on an online platform instead. However, many schools were already adopting educational technology to supplement and deepen students’ understanding of their lessons before the novel coronavirus had accelerated this trend.

In 2019 alone, EdTech investments in the United States had reached $18.66 billion. Meanwhile, the market for online education is forecasted to balloon to a whopping $325 billion by 2025.

It’s easy to see the drive behind these investments, as the Internet of Things presents countless opportunities to the education sector. Gamifying lessons through apps helps with students’ retention and their enjoyment of learning. Additionally, augmented reality (AR) technology aids in visualizing concepts that would otherwise be hard to understand, like chemical reactions. With these advantages, technology now plays an indispensable role in education, even in the new normal.

Digital Transformation in Healthcare

In a world of packed schedules, people have turned to technology to make healthcare more accessible. In Canada, telemedicine companies like Dialogue and Maven have set up shop to offer sought-after digital health solutions. These services eliminate the need to go to a doctor’s office and risk exposure to others.

Wearable technology such as smartwatches and fitness bands send personal health data to medical professionals in real-time to facilitate remote care delivery. This is especially important for COVID-19-vulnerable citizens or those who have difficulty traveling.

Aside from virtual care, predictive analytics and machine learning algorithms have also helped medical practitioners better assess their patients’ needs. This technology uses data recorded from previous patients to estimate outcomes and determine the best treatment course before an illness can reach its terminal stage.

Digital Transformation in Hospitality

At an ever-increasing pace, travelers often use apps to plan their trips and review hotel stays. With an increasingly tech-savvy customer base, the hospitality industry cannot afford to put off digitizing its services.

To adapt, hotels streamline the travel process by utilizing one-click booking services, complete with automated payment. Furthermore, smart technology installed in hotel rooms helps enhance the guests’ experience by turning the user’s voice into a universal remote control. This allows them to manipulate lighting and heating, turn on the television, or even order room service with a simple voice command.

Artificial intelligence has also found a place in the hospitality industry. Some establishments like The Cosmopolitan Hotel in Las Vegas have begun to use AI concierges to provide guests autonomous utility. Meanwhile, hotels track user preferences through data analytics, using machine learning technology to offer a more personalized experience.

Digital Transformation in Transportation

Technology has been instrumental in helping commuters navigate public transportation, given the current health crisis. For instance, contactless payments are reducing the risk of spreading the virus. This transit app also provides information on mass transport occupancy levels to help enforce social distancing. Passenger counters outfitted on vehicles record and transmit foot traffic data in real-time.

Digital transformation has also provided benefits to transportation workers who work on the frontline of the pandemic. A Verizon Connect article on mobile management systems notes how these systems have helped empower people like bus and taxi drivers. This technology allows them to coordinate with their team remotely, receive up-to-date traffic information on their routes, and minimize physical contact through wireless payments.

These are just a few examples of how multiple industries have embraced technology to digitize the consumer experience, improve operations, and adapt to the global health pandemic. Is your organization planning a digital transformation project? Book a meeting with NVT Phybridge to learn how their Power over Ethernet solutions will lower infrastructure costs, simplify the deployment, and improve your overall return on investment!

If you have an upcoming IP/IoT modernization project, we would love to help! Click below to book a one-on-one meeting with one of our Digital Transformation Consultants.

This article was guest written exclusively for NVT Phybridge by Janet Russel.

Janet Russel is a database administrator and freelance writer whose interests lie in AI, analytics, IoT, and how these fields continue to develop and impact our daily lives.

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As a long-time Cisco Preferred Solution Partner, we are very excited to announce that NVT Phybridge is now on the Cisco Black Belt Academy!

What is Cisco Black Belt Academy?

The Cisco Black Belt Academy is an enablement framework that allows all Cisco resellers and distributors to learn how to effectively sell, deploy and support solutions to create better customer outcomes. The NVT Phybridge training academy includes presentations, brochures, video content, webinars, assessments, and more to help you learn about industry-leading Power over Ethernet (PoE) solutions. We are excited to continue enhancing our relationship by assisting resellers through the Cisco Black Belt Academy.

Visit the Cisco Black Belt Academy, log in, and get started today!

Cisco Black Belt Academy is web-based and easily accessible, so you can work through the material anywhere, anytime, and at your own pace. Review documentation and video material as you work through the course to learn about the technology and how Cisco has used it to enhance customer experience worldwide. Review the key case studies and complete the relevant assessment to demonstrate your mastery of the content.

Improve Digital Transformation Outcomes

As you work through the Cisco Black Belt Academy content, you will learn about the PoLRE® (Power over Long Reach Ethernet) switch, which is available to Cisco and its partners on the Cisco Global Price List. The PoLRE switch delivers Ethernet and PoE over a single pair of UTP wire with up to 1,200ft (365m) reach, which is four times the reach of standard PoE switches. Deploy Cisco UC solutions using the customer’s existing CAT3 cabling infrastructure to create a secure and robust intent-based local area network.

Deployment is quick and simple and is achieved in three simple steps:

  1. Rack, stack, and configure the PoLRE switches.
  2. Connect the PoLRE switch to the customer’s existing network using the Amphenol connectors.
  3. Connect the Phylink adaptor and the new Cisco IP device and the endpoint location.

Get Started Today

Complete the NVT Phybridge training modules in the Cisco Black Belt Academy to get started. Your customers will thank you, as you will be able to help them deploy Cisco UC solutions without ripping-and-replacing their existing infrastructure, saving time, reducing cost, and simplifying the overall experience.

Want to join the program?

  • Go to Cisco SalesConnect and login with your Cisco credentials
  • Type Phybridge Black Belt in the search bar
  • Choose between the sales and presales tracks
  • Click the REGISTER button

Cisco Black Belt Academy

To learn more about Cisco Black Belt Academy, visit: https://bit.ly/2B2PfcL

Do you need help or want to learn more? Talk to one of our digital transformation experts here: https://www2.nvtphybridge.com/book-online-meeting

If you have an upcoming IP/IoT modernization project, we would love to help! Click below to book a one-on-one meeting with one of our Digital Transformation Consultants.

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NVT Phybridge COVID-19 Corporate Update – December 2020

Like many organizations, the effects of the global COVID-19 pandemic have impacted us at NVT Phybridge. Since March 2020, we have effectively adjusted to our new normal to strengthen the health of our business, ensuring current and future customer and partner needs are met in an effective and timely manner.

Procurement and Order Fulfillment

Initial pandemic lockdowns across the globe impacted manufacturing capacity and the modes of transportation that move raw materials and finished goods. Despite the pandemic, demand for electronics and electronic parts did not decrease. As expected, when short term supply gets tight, companies order even more to stockpile for the medium term, leading to further shortages.

NVT Phybridge has faced the same risks that all electronics manufacturers have faced. However, we are in a strong position as our entire CHARIoT line of products is manufactured in Canada. We rely on major carriers, partners, and distributors to get our products to end-users, and we continue to foster strong relationships with these players. We have also made appropriate adjustments to production and raw material procurement.

Many learnings have been incorporated into our administrative, production, and procurement processes that strengthen our ability to meet customer expectations, even in uncertain circumstances.

Completing Digital Transformation Projects

At the onset of the lockdowns, many businesses were forced to shut down or adapt to public health guidelines. Many large digital transformation projects were paused as the pandemic initially impacted the global economy.

Based on partner and end-user feedback, we remained confident that we were witnessing a delay in demand that we needed to manage, not an overall drop in demand. In the months following, some projects moved ahead as businesses adapted and took advantage of building availability after shifting to a work-from-home model.

Sales, Marketing, & Support

The sales and marketing landscape has shifted drastically since March 2020. As tradeshows and in-person workshops are no longer a viable option to reach potential clients, we have adjusted our focus to digital marketing, online marketplaces, and virtual selling. In place of physical meetings and site visits, we are hosting online webinars and have implemented a robust online meeting system. Potential clients and partners can easily book an online meeting with the NVT Phybridge sales team. We have also increased our digital marketing efforts while strengthening our relationships with distributors.

Fortunately, the nature of our technology has helped many of our customers complete their digital transformation projects. As a technology that enables the reuse of existing infrastructure, end-users and integrators are avoiding the re-cabling, construction, and renovation work on-site, simplifying deployment while adhering to social distancing measures.

Some of our end-user customers continue to experience project delays due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We continue to support their needs with discount extensions and other programs.

We are very proud of the technical support team and our efforts to continually improve during 2020. While maintaining our live technical support, we launched a website chat feature, which has experienced heavy usage from the outset. We will continue to provide effective support over the phone, video calls, and website chat.

Looking Ahead to 2021

We have laid a solid foundation upon which to grow and succeed in 2021. We will continue to focus on partner relationships, digital marketing, and promotions to ensure every organization can experience a simple, secure, and cost-effective digital transformation. The Internet of Things has supported and will continue to support businesses as they adjust to our new normal.

If you have an upcoming IP/IoT modernization project, we would love to help! Click below to book a one-on-one meeting with one of our Digital Transformation Consultants.

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Full Duplex vs. Half Duplex Networking

Full Duplex vs. Half Duplex, Symmetrical & Asymmetrical Bandwidth, Latency, Crosstalk, and More Explained!

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Full Duplex vs. Half Duplex

What is duplex in networking?

When evaluating Power over Ethernet switches, it’s important to understand full duplex and half duplex. When a switch is connected to an IP device, information is transferred in both directions. The switch sends information to the endpoint device and vice versa. Full duplex (FDX) switches allow for the simultaneous transmission of information between the switch and the endpoint. In a half duplex (HDX) system, communication flows in one direction at a time.

For example, let’s say two files need to be exchanged. One file is at the head end (switch end), and the other is at the endpoint. The two files are 150Mb in size, and the switch can deliver 100Mbps, full duplex. In this scenario, it would take 1.5 seconds to transfer BOTH files to their destinations.

Let’s now analyze this scenario from a half duplex perspective. In this situation, the first file must be transferred before the other can be sent. Assuming the same file size and the same delivery of 100Mbps, the time required to transfer the two files is approximately doubled. Both files are transferred at the same speed, but not simultaneously, creating a very different overall experience.

The above example is a bit of an oversimplification of a real-world example. Full duplex and half duplex switches will vary in performance. Collision management, the directionality of traffic, the number of endpoints in a network, and cable length/type will also have an impact. It is not uncommon to see performance of less than half of a full duplex network.

A half duplex system can be compared to the “push-to-talk” nature of a walkie talkie. When the button is pressed, the receiver is turned off, and the transmitter is activated. When the button is released, the transmitter is turned off, and the receiver is turned back on. The device cannot transmit and receive simultaneously. A full duplex system is like talking on the telephone, in which both parties can speak and listen at the same time.

The entire NVT Phybridge CHARIoT Series of products are full duplex switches. Data is transferred simultaneously from the switch to the endpoint, and vice versa, to ensure optimal network performance and speed.

Symmetrical vs. Asymmetrical Bandwidth

Like full duplex and half duplex, symmetrical and asymmetrical bandwidth will play a significant role in the network’s overall performance and reliability. A switch that can deliver 100Mbps symmetrical, full duplex can transmit and receive at a rate of 100Mbps. Even if it is full duplex, a network switch with asymmetrical bandwidth cannot send AND receive at 100Mbps. Asymmetrical switches will use an uneven split to transmit at 70Mbps and receive at 30Mbps, for example.

Using the same example of moving two 150Mb files, a 100Mbps symmetrical, full duplex switch will deliver both files in 1.5 seconds. A 100Mbps asymmetrical half duplex switch with a 70/30 split will take 7.14 seconds to deliver both files. Even though both devices can be marketed as a 100Mbps switch, real-world performance is significantly different.

The NVT Phybridge CHARIoT series of products all have symmetrical bandwidth capabilities, ensuring fast and consistent data delivery through the network.


In addition to transmission speed, latency also plays a significant role in network performance and service quality. Latency is the time it takes a piece of information (a packet) to reach its destination. Latency may not be as crucial for certain endpoints, such as data terminals. However, for real-time applications like voice calls or live video monitoring, low latency is critical to ensure good user experience.

To illustrate latency, we tested our long reach Ethernet over Coax switch against a competing product. Both switches were tested at 100Mbps, symmetrical, full duplex over 2,000ft of RG6 cable.

Latency was tested using the Siama GENEM-X 10G Ethernet/IP Test Application at various frame sizes ranging from 64 bytes to 1518 bytes. The average delay, or latency, of the NVT Phybridge CLEER24 switch, was 64 microseconds. The average delay of the competing product was 4,685 microseconds, which is 73-times more latency that the CLEER24 switch. See the full performance comparison between these two products.

Even at 2,000ft, NVT Phybridge Power over Ethernet switches have extremely low latency, on par with standard reach Ethernet solutions from market leaders like Cisco. Many long reach Power over Ethernet solutions on the market have higher latency levels, which are not suited to support real-time applications.


Finally, there is the issue of noise, also known as crosstalk. Crosstalk occurs when a signal transmission results in undesired electromagnetic waves that interfere with surrounding equipment or wiring.

Noise production makes a big impact on large deployments where there is a lot of equipment and cabling in one physical space. This issue can be overlooked when testing equipment with just a few devices. However, as the deployment size increases, so does the noise produced, and therefore the interference with other devices. As a result, devices will slow and experience packet loss.

NVT Phybridge Power over Ethernet solutions are FCC Class B certified and produce very minimal noise interference. This makes our equipment safe and effective, even around extremely sensitive devices like pacemakers. Our long reach Power over Ethernet switches are used onboard many luxury cruise ships to enable thousands of endpoints inside the noisy metal walls of a ship’s networking closets – without issues. This makes our solutions very scalable, especially for large scale deployments with many endpoints.

There are several Power over Ethernet switches on the market, and they are far from equal. Clever marketing tactics can sometimes hide the real story behind a Power over Ethernet switch’s expected performance. It’s important to understand what the numbers mean and how that translates into a better experience.

Are you interested in diving deeper into the performance of NVT Phybridge long reach Power over Ethernet solutions? Visit our performance comparison page to see how we compare to industry-leading Cisco switches, and how we crush the competition!

NVT Phybridge Power over Ethernet Switches

NVT Phybridge long reach Power over Ethernet switches and extenders deliver symmetrical, full duplex, and PoE over any new or existing network infrastructure. We provide industry-leading solutions to make digital transformation projects as simple and rewarding as possible for our customers and partners. Leave the technology to us. All you need to think about is what devices and applications will you enable?

Related Resources

Power over Ethernet Explained

Managed vs. Unmanaged Power over Ethernet Switches Explained

If you have an upcoming IP/IoT modernization project, we would love to help! Click below to book a one-on-one meeting with one of our Digital Transformation Consultants.

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Managed vs. Unmanaged Switch

Difference Between Managed and Unmanaged Switches

There are two types of network switches: managed and unmanaged. It is important to understand the differences between managed vs. unmanaged switches when setting up a network.

A network switch is a piece of networking equipment that connects devices on a local area network. The network switch is a core component of network infrastructure and facilitates the transmission of data between connected devices. Unlike a network hub (which sends all data to all ports), a network switch only sends data to the device it is intended for.

What is an Unmanaged Switch?

An unmanaged network switch is often referred to as a plug-and-play type network solution. This is largely due to its fixed configuration and minimal setup requirements. As the term “plug-and-play” suggests, IT teams can quickly and easily incorporate unmanaged switches into the local area network.

Unmanaged switches are most commonly used for smaller networks, or to extend an existing network with additional ports. Due to its simplicity and lack of customization, unmanaged switches are usually available at a lower cost when compared to managed network switches.

What is a Managed Switch?

Compared to an unmanaged switch, managed switches offer more enhanced network control features and configuration options at the cost of complexity. Setting up a local area network using managed switches will require a skilled network administrator. This is especially true when looking to get the most out of the device’s capabilities.

A managed network switch provides network administrators with the ability to manage, configure, and monitor local area network settings using a graphical user interface or command line. Each port can be configured separately to maximize the performance of the network and the endpoint devices. Troubleshooting and monitoring are simpler and can be done remotely.

Managed network switches also provide significant security benefits. Network administrators can monitor and manage network traffic in real-time. This provides a faster and more effective response to active security threats.

Managed switches also support VLAN segmentation. This will allow administrators to separate network applications connected on the same physical network without installing multiple sets of cables and networking equipment. Managed switches are usually much higher in cost due to their enhanced feature set and robustness.

Do I Need a Managed or Unmanaged Switch?

The type of network switch you need will largely depend on what it will be used for and what size of the environment. Unmanaged network switches are ideal for smaller LAN environments, such as a home, small business, or single retail shop. Unmanaged switches are also ideal for those who want to quickly and easily set up a local area network.

Managed switches are more suited for medium and large enterprises, or those who need to manage network traffic and accessibility. Many network engineers and managers would suggest the use of managed switches for networks with a large number of users. Managed switches are also ideal if clients, partners, or other external individuals need to gain access to your network.

Are you still unsure what kind of network switch is best to suit your needs? You’re not alone, and we would love to help. Use the button below to contact an NVT Phybridge Consultant to help find the best solution for your unique needs.

Related Resources

Power over Ethernet Explained

PoE Performance Metrics Explained

If you have an upcoming IP/IoT modernization project, we would love to help! Click below to book an online meeting with one of our Digital Transformation Consultants.

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What is Power over Ethernet PoE?

What is Power over Ethernet (PoE)?

What is Power over Ethernet (PoE)?

Power over Ethernet (PoE) is the process of sending electrical power and data over copper wire.

The combination of data transmission along with power supplying hardware onto the same RJ45 Ethernet connector allows for the transmission of power over the network cabling. PoE networks can source power at the network switch side or at a PoE injector to add power to an existing data line.

How Does Power over Ethernet (PoE) Work?

Power over Ethernet is a process where devices known as power sourcing equipment (PSE) provide a direct current (DC) voltage over a standard Ethernet cable to another connected device known as a powered device (PD). This allows for the powering of devices without the need for a local power source at the device location or having to run a separate cable for power.

History of Power over Ethernet

Before Ethernet communications, devices like cameras required a signal cable to transmit the image back to a recorder. These devices also required local power supplies to provide power. Because cameras and similar devices are often installed in locations where local power may not be available, companies started running a mix of signal and power cables with a power supply transmitting power from the head end recorder location.

Through further development into signaling and power technologies, cameras started using multi-pair UTP cables, like CAT5, to send a mix of signaling and power. Signaling was sent on one or two of the four pairs of a CAT5 cable, and power transmitted on the remaining two pairs. This helped to simplify installations, as fewer cables were required to accomplish the same task.

When endpoint signaling moved away from analog transmissions to IP, this capability was lost. Then in 2003, Power over Ethernet was created and standardized by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

Power Over Ethernet Standards

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is the governing body that creates standards for Ethernet and other data communications. The first governing document created for PoE was 802.3AF, which states that compliant Power over Ethernet switches deliver 15.4W of power to guarantee delivery of 12.95W at the endpoint.

What is PoE+?

Improvements to this standard came in the form of 802.3AT, also known as PoE+, which states that Power Sourcing Equipment can provide 30W of power to ensure 25.5W at the endpoint. To guarantee a successful negotiation, both the switch and the endpoint device must be IEEE compliant. However, some device manufacturers have created their own implementations of PoE.

There are three main techniques for transmitting power over Ethernet cabling. These are Mode A (also known as common-mode data pair power), Mode B (spare-pair power), and 4PPoE (4-Pair power). With Mode A the power is provided on the same cable pair as the data pairs used in a 10Base-T or 100Base-TX transmission. With Mode B the spare pairs are used and with 4PPoE all 4-pairs of the Ethernet cable are used for power transmission. Below are the specifics of each mode.

PoE Mode Ethernet Cable pairs utilised Pin allocation
Mode A Data Pairs. Pins 1, 2 & 3, 6 Pins 1, 2 = Positive Voltage (DC+)

Pins 3, 6 = Negative Voltage (DC-)

Mode B Spare Pairs. Pins 4, 5 & 7, 8 Pins 4, 5 = DC+

Pins 7, 8 = DC-

4PPoE All 4 Pairs Pins 1, 2 & 4, 5 = DC+

Pins 3, 6 & 7, 8 = DC-

These have been standardized by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) under the Ethernet Standard 802.3. The first being standardized in 2003.

IEEE Standard PoE Mode Supported Year of Standardization
802.3af Mode A, Mode B 2003
802.3at Mode A, Mode B 2009
802.3bt Mode A, Mode B, 4PPoE 2018

Each IEEE standard depicts how the power is delivered, the voltage (V) supplied, and the wattage (W) available as can be seen in the below table:

IEEE Standard PoE Type DC Voltage output at PSE Power delivered by PSE Voltage Available at PD Wattage Available at PD PoE Mode Supported
802.3af Type 1 “PoE” 44-57V 15.4W 37-57V 12.95W Mode A

Mode B

802.3at Type 2


“High PoE”

50-57V 30W 42.5-57V 25.5W Mode A

Mode B

802.3bt Type 3


42.5-57V 60W 42.5-57V 51W Mode A

Mode B


802.3bt Type 4


41.1-57V 100W 41.1-57V 71W 4PPoE

There are varying names for these PoE standards, as can be seen under the PoE Type heading in the above table but essentially, they all fall under the specified IEEE standards listed.

Power over Ethernet Classes

The Power over Ethernet Class is reserved for powered devices (PD). The class specifies how much power the PD requires to function. There are currently 9 PoE classes ranging from 0 to 8. They are as follows:

Class Usage Wattage required at PD
0 Valid for Type 1 (802.3af) devices 0.44–12.94W
1 Valid for Type 1 (802.3af) devices 0.44–3.84W
2 Valid for Type 1 (802.3af) devices 3.84–6.49W
3 Valid for Type 1 (802.3af) devices 6.49–12.95W
4 Valid for Type 2 (802.3at) devices,
not allowed for 802.3af devices
5 Valid for Type 3 (802.3bt) devices 40W (4-pair)
6 Valid for Type 3 (802.3bt) devices 51W (4-pair)
7 Valid for Type 4 (802.3bt) devices 62W (4-pair)
8 Valid for Type 4 (802.3bt) devices 71.3W (4-pair)

In most cases, the datasheet of a PD will display the PoE Class of the device or at least the IEEE standard it adheres to in the power, power consumption, or electrical sections.

Maximum Distance for Power Over Ethernet

Over the past 30 years, Power over Ethernet technology has seen incredible innovation. Initially, one of the primary downsides of PoE was the limited reach of 328ft (100m). However, new PoE innovations, like those from NVT Phybridge, are pushing the limits of Power over Ethernet transmission over several cable types. For example, the NVT Phybridge CLEER24 is an enterprise-grade 24-port PoE switch that delivers power and data up to 6,000ft (1,830) over a single Coax cable. That’s 18 times farther than a standard reach Power over Ethernet switch.

NVT Phybridge Power over Ethernet

The enterprise-grade 24 and 48-port PoLRE® switches deliver power and data over a single pair of UTP cable (also known as Category 3 cable or voice-grade cable used for telephone wiring) with up to 1,200ft (365m) reach. The NVT Phybridge FLEX24 switch delivers power and data over 2 or 4-pairs of UTP cable (Category 5/6 cable) with up to 2,000ft (610m) reach.

See how our PoE switch performance compares

Advantages of Power Over Ethernet

PoE provides four primary advantages: lower infrastructure costs, fast and simple deployments, improved LAN design, and reduced e-waste.

Endpoint devices require two connections: data and electrical. The data connection allows communication with the network while the electrical connection powers the device. Separately installing both connections is costly and unnecessarily complicated, especially when considering the number and location of the devices across the organization. Power over Ethernet provides both connections using a single wire.

Many companies will install a PoE switch fabric when modernizing from older, analog voice and security systems, or when deploying a new system. NVT Phybridge PoE switches provide numerous benefits:

  1. Lower infrastructure costs
  2. Fast and simple deployment
  3. Improved LAN design
  4. Less e-waste

Lower Infrastructure Costs

Businesses looking to modernize from analog/digital devices to IP already have the most critical requirement, a proven and reliable LAN infrastructure. This cabling can be leveraged using NVT Phybridge Power over Ethernet technology to support IP endpoints. Organizations have been doing this for over ten years to ensure simple VoIP and security upgrades.

Companies are saving millions of dollars in network readiness costs while avoiding the unforeseen challenges that come with an enterprise-wide network overhaul. These cost savings are realized through significantly reduced labor, cabling, and construction costs, which are often reallocated into devices and applications to improve return on investment.

The extended reach capabilities significantly reduce IDF closet requirements – including space, power, cooling, and backup power – to reduce cost, network complexity, and to simplify network management. NVT Phybridge PoE switches are simple to deploy, configure, and manage. Deploying devices across multiple locations is easy, thanks to the repeatable, predictable, and scalable deployment methodology.

Fast and Simple Deployment

Deployments using Power over Ethernet technology are quick and easy, especially when leveraging network infrastructure that is already in the building. Simply install the PoE switch in the MDF closet, connect to the new or existing network cabling, and connect the device at the endpoint location.

Improved LAN Design

Organizations have the freedom to establish/maintain a physically separate Power over Ethernet network, or centrally converge to the core network using a single wire in a highly secure and controlled manner. This applies to both Cloud and on-premise solutions and significantly improves network security and performance. Quality of service is enhanced while ongoing network management is simplified as IT teams continue to manage the core business network while voice/security teams can handle these separate networks.

Additionally, as core business applications and data terminals (employee computers, Wi-Fi access points) continually require more and more bandwidth, network equipment will generally evolve every 3 to 5 years. By physically segmenting your PoE network, you can make changes to your core business network without impacting or disrupting your communication, security, and other systems.

Less E-Waste

By repurposing existing infrastructure and reducing/eliminating IDF closet requirements, organizations are significantly reducing the environmental impact of their digital transformations. Far less cabling and equipment e-waste is produced. NVT Phybridge Power over Ethernet switches are built with PowerWISE technology to ensure low energy consumption, power redundancy, and hot-swappable power supplies.

Related Resources

Managed vs. Unmanaged Switches

Power over Ethernet Performance Metrics Explained

If you have an upcoming IP/IoT modernization project, we would love to help! Click below to book a one-on-one meeting with one of our Digital Transformation Consultants.

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In 1990, networking equipment manufacturer, Kalpana, introduced the first multi-port LAN switch, which significantly enhanced Ethernet networks and paved the way for modern switch solutions. Cisco later acquired Kalpana in 1994.

For the next 10-15 years, the only devices connected to these networks were data terminals. During this period, the objective was to continually deliver an increasing amount of bandwidth to these data terminals, as demand for faster speeds increased.

Today, organizations are deploying an increasing number of internet-connected devices onto the local area network, including IP phones, IP wireless access points, and IP intercoms. These new devices are being layered onto a network that was designed for data terminals. However, IP and IoT devices have significantly different requirements than a traditional data terminal.

IP phones, for example, require real-time data delivery and are highly latency-sensitive. However, IP communication is being layered onto a switch fabric designed for near-time data delivery with an emphasis on delivering an increasing amount of bandwidth.

Given the technology available at the time, VLAN solutions were introduced to virtually segment the network. However, the local area network has become incredibly complex, difficult to manage, and costly.

Today, new switch innovations are available, and VLANs may no longer be the most effective strategy. NVT Phybridge switch innovations allow organizations to create a physically separate network for various IP devices and applications. Organizations can leverage any new or existing infrastructure to create a physically separate, robust, and secure Power over Ethernet backbone for any smart device. Additionally, these networks can be centrally converged using a single wire in a highly controlled manner. We have helped many organizations leverage their existing point-to-point network topologies to achieve the same five 9’s of reliability that was experienced with analog systems.

This allows businesses to create LAN strategies based on the requirements of the endpoint device. Frost & Sullivan refer to this as the “outside-in approach” in the Modern LAN literature. Cisco refers to this as “intent-based networking”. Both refer to establishing a purpose-driven network that is specifically designed to support the application and endpoint being enabled. This strategy can provide amazing benefits to the end-user:

  • No compromise to the existing data network
  • Simple and fast modernization to IP
  • Reduced cost and business disruption
  • Secure and reliable PoE network
  • A network that is simple for IT teams to manage

Many hospitals that we have worked with prefer to establish physically separate networks for voice and emergency phone systems because they need to maintain 24/7 up-time to ensure safety. This kind of reliability and performance is available for any organization, not just those in healthcare.

Spend less of your digital transformation budget on infrastructure and more on the ROI-driving factors, such as the endpoints and applications that provide business value. Is your organization looking to modernize to IP or the Internet of Things? Let us help you simplify network requirements while creating a robust and reliable PoE backbone for any IP device.

If you have an upcoming IP/IoT modernization project, we would love to help! Click below to book a one-on-one meeting with one of our Digital Transformation Consultants.

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The modern classroom is becoming a more connected and digital experience with new technologies to enhance security, productivity, and learning. It started with computer labs for student use, smart whiteboards in the classroom, and digital textbooks in place of old, beaten-up books with notes and drawings from past owners.

Technology in the classroom has provided a fantastic opportunity to expand and improve the curriculum. Computer labs helped educators prepare students for careers in computer programming, accounting, design, and more.

Today, the Internet of Things (IoT) provides even more opportunity to enhance education, from preparing students for future careers to improving safety and security measures. Internet-connected security cameras, blue light emergency phone terminals, and IP access control help make our schools as safe as possible.

However, infrastructure requirements continue to be one of the biggest challenges for educational institutions as they attempt to incorporate new technologies and IoT devices. Many operate in older buildings or on older campuses, making it extremely costly, complicated, and disruptive to rip-and-replace the existing infrastructure to support these smart devices.

Universities, specialized institutions, and school districts are simplifying the modernization to IP and the Internet of Things. Using Modern LAN principles and NVT Phybridge switch innovations, these institutions are transforming their existing cabling into a robust and secure IP backbone to support these intelligent, internet-connected devices. As schools try to do more with what they have, this no-compromise solution provides massive savings to ensure digital transformation projects easily stay within budget.

Originally published on LinkedIn by Steven Fair, EVP of Sales at NVT Phybridge

If you have an upcoming IP/IoT modernization project, we would love to help! Click below to book a one-on-one meeting with one of our Digital Transformation Consultants.

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